Common Eye Disorders

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Refractive errors
Age – related macular degeneration (AMD)
Strabismus ( Crossed eye)
Cataract
Glaucoma
Diabetic Retinopathy
Amblyopia


 
REFRACTIVE ERRORS

It is a common eye disorder that happens when the shape of the eye prevents you from focusing well. The result is blurred vision which can be so severe, it impacts vision. This can be corrected with eye glasses, surgery or contact lens. Four types of refractive errors exist. These are

myopia (nearsightedness): difficulty in seeing distant objects clearly.

hyperopia (farsightedness): difficulty in seeing close objects clearly.

astigmatism: distorted vision as a result of  an irregularly curved cornea.

presbyopia: loss of the ability to focus up close, it is linked to aging and occurs almost universally.

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AGE – RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (AMD)

This age related eye disorder is the number one cause of vision loss in Americans  60 years and older. It results in damage to your sharp and central vision. You need central vision to do task such as seeing objects and reading and driving. There are two types

Wet AMD : It occurs  when abnormal blood vessels grow under the macular and often leaks fluid and blood. This quickly damages the macular and results in blurred vision.

DRY AMD : It occurs as a result of the breakdown in the light-sensitive cells of the macular. Loss of central vision gradually occurs and results in straight lines looking crooked.

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STABISMUS ( CROSSED EYE)

It is a situation in which both eyes do not look at the same place at the same time. It is caused by lack of coordination between the eyes This causes the eye to turn inward  ( esotropia ), outward  ( exotropia ), upward  ( hypertropia )or downward ( hypotropia ). The cause of strabismus in children in unknown but in most cases , it is present shortly after birth (congenital strabismus). This eye condition can cause  reduced or absent depth perception and the brain may learn to ignore the input from one eye. This results in loss of vision in one eye.

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CATARACT

This is the leading cause of blindness  worldwide and results in cloudiness of the eye’s lens. This disease can occur at any age or may be present at birth.

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GLAUCOMA

It is a group of diseases that damage the eye’s optic nerves and result in vision loss and blindness. It occurs when there is a gradual buildup of  fluid pressure inside the eyes but can also occur when eye pressure is normal. Early treatment is necessary to prevent vision loss. There are two types of glaucoma. “open angle” and “closed angle” glaucoma.

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DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

This is a common complication of diabetes.  It is characterized by progressive damage to the blood vessels of the retina which is necessary for good vision. Diabetic retinopathy usually affects both eyes. You can reduce your risk of this eye condition by managing your blood sugar and controlling your blood pressure and  cholesterol.

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AMBLYOPIA

It is also known as lazy eye and is a common cause of vision impairment in children. With this condition, vision in one of the eyes is reduced because the eye and the brain are not working together. Strabismus can cause amblyopia. Treatment in early childhood is necessary to prevent permanent vision impairment in one eye during adulthood.

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REFERENCES
What is a refractive error?. World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/features/qa/45/en/. Accessed December 7, 2013

Macular degeneration : National Library of Medicine. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/maculardegeneration.html. Accessed December 8, 2013

Strabismus (Crossed Eyes). American Optometric Association. http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems/glossary-of-eye-and-vision-conditions/strabismus. Accessed December 8, 2013

Common Eye Disorders. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . http://www.cdc.gov/visionhealth/basic_information/eye_disorders.htm. Accessed December 8, 2013

Eye & Vision Problems. American Optometric Association. http://www.aoa.org/patients-and-public/eye-and-vision-problems. Accessed December 8, 2013

Facts About Diabetic Retinopathy. National Eye Institute. http://www.nei.nih.gov/health/diabetic/retinopathy.asp. Accessed December 8, 2013

The American Heritage® Stedman’s Medical Dictionary. Retrieved December 2013 from Dictionary.com website.http://dictionary.reference.com.

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